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The Mummification Process

The Mummification Process

Mummification is the process of preserving the body after death by deliberately drying or embalming flesh. This typically involved removing moisture from a deceased body and using chemicals or natural preservatives, such as resin, to desiccate the flesh and organs. Older mummies are believed to have been naturally preserved by burying them in dry desert sand and were not chemically treated. 

Scene of the Amduat

Scenes of the Amduat, Tomb of Ramesses IX

Decorations show scenes from the Amduat or “Book of What is in the Underworld”, detail of a wall carving in the second corridor of the Tomb of Ramesses IX (KV6). “Amduat (What is in the Netherworld) was used in Ancient Egypt as a generic name for descriptions of the netherworld, but in modern Egyptology is reserved...

The Burial Chamber of King Seti I

The burial chamber of Tomb of Seti I

The tomb of Seti I is one of the longest, deepest, and most beautifully decorated tombs in the Valley of the Kings. Seti I was the second king of the 19th Dynasty, and father of Ramesses II (the Great). His tomb, (KV17) in the Valley of the Kings, is sometimes called “Belzoni’s tomb” after its...

The burial chamber in the Tomb of Tutankhamun

Inside the Tomb of Tutankhamun

The tomb of Tutankhamun, also known as the “Tutankhamun’s burial chamber,” is located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. It was discovered by Howard Carter in 1922 and is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. Carter had been excavating in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt for several...

The Kadesh Treaty (Hittite version)

Battle of Kadesh

The battle of Kadesh is one of the world’s largest chariot battles, fought beside the Orontes River, King Ramesses II sought to wrest Syria from the Hittites and recapture the Hittite-held city of Kadesh. There was a day of carnage as some 5,000 chariots charged into the fray, but no outright victor.  The Kadesh Treaty...

Guardians of the Underworld bearing knives

Guardians of the Underworld bearing knives

Taken from Spell 144 of the ‘Book of the Dead’, they were the keepers of the gates of the Underworld, menacing the enemies of order with their sharpened knives. “Egyptians were probably the first to be aware of the nobility inherent in the human form and to express it in art. One can sense the...

Relief of the Goddess Seshat

In this relief, the goddess Seshat, depicted in a leopard skin, goddess of wisdom, knowledge, and is credited with inventing writing. She also became identified as the goddess of accounting, architecture, astronomy, astrology, building, mathematics, and surveying. In ancient Egypt, the levels of literacy were rather low, less than 1%. Although there were some areas,...

Map of Ancient Egypt - Sites and Settlements

Map of Ancient Egypt

This map of ancient Egypt details the key settlements of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. Also shown are many of the important Ancient Egyptian sites and temples that remain today. The various capitals of the period are highlighted on the map in addition to the locations of the natural resources and minerals exploited by the Ancient...

The Journey of the Sun god Amun-Re

The Journey of the Sun God Amun-Re

A Wall painting from the Tomb of Seti I (KV17) depicting the the journey of the sun god Amun-Re in his ram-headed form, standing in his solar barque, detail from the ‘Book of Gates’. The Book of Gates is an ancient Egyptian funerary text dating from the New Kingdom. It narrates the passage of a...

Litany of Re: Depiction of Re-Osiris

When Re was in the underworld, he merged with Osiris, the god of the dead, and through it became the god of the dead as well. The union of the gods Re and Osiris (in the guise of a ram-headed mummy which wears the sun’s disk between its horizontal, corkscrew horns). The “Amduat”, like the...