Thoth, god of wisdom, learning, science, and medicine, was also a patron of art and scribes who recorded the judgment on the dead in the underworld. Often the god is depicted with the head of a sacred ibis and body of a man, but he also takes the form of a baboon, as seen here. When represented as a baboon, he symbolized those creatures who rose early with the sun, and was therefore held to be connected to the sun god Re. Baboons were a feature in early Egyptian festivals (5300-3000 BC), but they later became important to the Early Dynastic Kings of Horus (3000-2686 BC). The Egyptians associated Thoth with rebirth and the afterlife.
Late Period, 26th Dynasty, ca. 664-525 BC. Made of Egyptian faience. Now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas. 2001.6