Litany of Re with Scenes of Anubis
Besides the Litany of Re, we find the vignette of Chapter 151 of the Book of the Dead. It represents the mummification of the dead king under the protection of Anubis, Isis, Nephthys and the four sons of Horus.
In some versions of ancient Egyptian religious beliefs Anubis assisted in the mummification and rebirth of the god Osiris. This responsibility for mummification and eventual rebirth is the same role Anubis fulfills for the human dead.
Anubis is the Greek name of a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian mythology. Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumed different roles in various contexts. Depicted as a protector of graves as early as the 1st Dynasty (ca. 3100-2890 BC), Anubis was also an embalmer. One of his prominent roles was as a god who ushered souls into the afterlife.
As the god ‘who is in the embalming tent’ he oversees the process of mummification, and is often shown leaning over the mummified body. Anubis also supports the upright mummy near the tomb entrance in Opening of the Mouth ceremonies, where rituals ensure the justified dead will be able to breathe, speak and see again.
New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1292-1189 BC. Detail on the ceiling in the Tomb of Siptah (KV47), Valley of the Kings, West Thebes.